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Development of secondary microcephaly after delivery: possible consequence of mother-baby transmission of Zika Virus in breast milk

By Siqueira Mello A, Pascalicchio Bertozzi APA, Rodrigues MMD, et al.

The Zika virus is an arbovirus that has as main source of transmission the bite of infected insects of the genus Aedes and has been associated with cases of congenital malformation and microcephaly in neonates. However, other sources of transmission have been identified since the emergence of this virus in the world population, such as vertical transmission by semen and possibly other body fluids such as vaginal secretion and breast milk.

Published in: Am J Case Rep. 2019:20:723-725

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Understanding the relation between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse fetal, infant and child outcomes: a protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of pregnant women and their infants and children

By Wilder-Smith A, Wei Y, Araújo TVB, VanKerkhove M, et al.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is a known cause of microcephaly and other congenital and developmental anomalies. In the absence of a ZIKV vaccine or prophylactics, principal investigators (PIs) and international leaders in ZIKV research have formed the ZIKV Individual Participant Data (IPD) Consortium to identify, collect and synthesise IPD from longitudinal studies of pregnant women that measure ZIKV infection during pregnancy and fetal, infant or child outcomes.

Published in: BMJ Open. 2019 Jun 18;9(6):e026092

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Detection of Zika virus in paired urine and amniotic fluid samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic women and their babies during a disease outbreak: association with neurological symptoms in newborns

By Vedovello D, Witkin SS, Silva ACB, et al.

Paired maternal and newborn urine and amniotic fluid from 138 subjects collected during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak was analyzed for ZIKV by gene amplification (RT-qPCR), and the findings were correlated with clinical symptoms and neurological anomalies in the babies. ZIKV was detected in 1 of 9 symptomatic women (11.1%) and in 19 of 129 asymptomatic women (14.7%). Neurological manifestations were present in 19 babies (13.7%), 10 of 20 (50%) positive and 9 of 119 (7.6%) negative (p < 0.001) for ZIKV. Twelve (8.6%) urines collected during gestation were ZIKV-positive; only 2 remained positive for ZIKV postpartum. Six (4.1%) newborn urines collected within 1 day of delivery were ZIKV-positive cases. In 3 of these cases, ZIKV was detected in mother’s urine pre- and postpartum and in both mother’s urine and babies’ urine. Four of the amniotic fluid samples (2.9%) were ZIKV-positive. Among ZIKV-negative babies with neurological sequel, 87.5% were female; in contrast, 72.7% ZIKV-positive babies with neurological abnormalities were male (p = 0.019). We conclude that during a ZIKV outbreak, clinical symptoms and ZIKV detection in biological fluids are poor predictors of infection and adverse neurologic sequel in newborns

Published in: J Neurovirol. 2019;9. doi: 10.1007/s13365-019-00797-0

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The challenge of the laboratory diagnosis in a confirmed congenital Zika virus syndrome in utero: a case report

By Sulleiro E, Frick MA, Rodó C, Espasa M, et al. 

Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused one of the most challenging global infectious epidemics in recent years because of its causal association with severe microcephaly and other congenital malformations. The diagnosis of viral infections usually relies on the detection of virus proteins or genetic material in clinical samples as well as on the infected host immune responses. Serial serologic testing is required for the diagnosis of congenital infection when diagnostic molecular biology is not possible.

Published in: Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 May;98(20):e15532.

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Lipidomic analysis reveals serum alteration of plasmalogens in patients infected with ZIKA virus

By Queiroz A,Dantas Pinto IF, Lima M, et al.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Since the large outbreaks in French Polynesia in 2013-2014 and in Brazil in 2015, ZIKV has been considered a new public health threat. Similar to other related flavivirus, ZIKV is associated with mild and self-limiting symptoms such as rash, pruritus, prostration, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, conjunctivitis, lower back pain and, when present, a short-term low grade fever. In addition, ZIKV has been implicated in neurological complications such as neonatal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Herein, serum lipidomic analysis was used to identify possible alterations in lipid metabolism triggered by ZIKV infection.

Published in: Front Microbiol. 2019;10:753

 

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Field diagnosis and genotyping of chikungunya virus using a dried reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and MinION sequencing

By Hayashida K, Orba Y, Sequeira PC, et al.

Detection and sequencing of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) genome was performed using a combination of a modified reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method and a MinION sequencer. We developed the protocol for drying all the reagents for the RT-LAMP in a single reaction tube. Using this system, the CHIKV genome was effectively amplified under isothermal conditions, and used as a template for MinION sequencing with a laptop computer. Our in-house RT-LAMP method and MinION sequencing system were also validated with RNAs and serum samples from recent outbreaks of CHIKV patients in Brazil. The obtained sequence data confirmed the CHIKV outbreaks and identified the genotype. In summary, our established inexpensive on-site genome detection and sequencing system is applicable for both diagnosis of CHIKV infected patients and genotyping of the CHIKV virus in future outbreak in remote areas.

Published in: PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(6):e0007480

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Minor groove binder modification of widely used TaqMan hydrolysis probe for detection of dengue virus reduces risk of false-negative real-time PCR results for serotype 4

By Gray ER, Heaney J, Ferns RB, Sequeira PC, Nastouli E, Garson JA

Dengue is a vector-transmitted viral infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, with over 50 million apparent cases and a fatality rate of 2.5 % of 0.5 million severe cases per annum in recent years. Four serotypes are currently co-circulating. Diagnosis of infection may be by polymerase chain reaction, serology or rapid antigen test for NS1. Both pan-serotype and serotype-specific genome detection assays have been described, however, achieving adequate sensitivity with pan-serotype assays has been challenging. Indeed, as we show here, inspection of components and cycling parameters of a pan-serotype RT-qPCR assay in use in laboratories worldwide revealed insufficient probe stability to accommodate potential nucleotide mismatches, resulting in false-negatives. A minor–groove binder (MGB)-modified version of the probe was designed and its performance compared with that of the original probe in 32 samples.

Published in: J Virol Methods. 2019;268:17-23

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Past and future spread of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

By Kraemer MUG, Reiner RC Jr, Brady OJ, et al. 

 

The global population at risk from mosquito-borne diseases—including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika—is expanding in concert with changes in the distribution of two key vectors: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The distribution of these species is largely driven by both human movement and the presence of suitable climate. Using statistical mapping techniques, we show that human movement patterns explain the spread of both species in Europe and the United States following their introduction. We find that the spread of Ae. aegypti is characterized by long distance importations, while Ae. albopictus has expanded more along the fringes of its distribution. We describe these processes and predict the future distributions of both species in response to accelerating urbanization, connectivity and climate change. Global surveillance and control efforts that aim to mitigate the spread of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses must consider the so far unabated spread of these mosquitos. Our maps and predictions offer an opportunity to strategically target surveillance and control programmes and thereby augment efforts to reduce arbovirus burden in human populations globally.

Published in: Nat Microbiol. 2019; 4(5):900.

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Immunoglobulin-like Domain of HsFcμR as a Capture Molecule for Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus- and Zika Virus-Specific IgM Antibodies

By Rackow A, Ehmen C, von Possel R, et al.

The cellular surface molecule HsTOSO/ FAIM3/HsFcR has been identified as an IgM-specific Fc receptor expressed on lymphocytes. Here, we show that its extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain (HsFcRIgl) specifically binds to IgM/antigen immune complexes (ICs) and exploit this property for the development of novel detection systems for IgM antibodies directed against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Zika virus (ZIKV).

Published in: Clin Chem. 2019; 65(3): 451-461.

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Late Identification of Chikungunya Virus in the Central Nervous System of a 2-Month-Old Infant: Persistence of Maternal-Neonatal Infection?

By Di Maio Ferreira FCPA, da Silva ASV, Bispo de Filippis AM, Brasil P.

We report here a probable case of vertical transmission of chikungunya infection with confirmed maternal viremia close to labor that led to severe infection in the newborn. The newborn progressed with cutaneous lesions and irritability 2 months after vertical transmission, when chikungunya virus was detected in the infant’s CSF by a molecular diagnostic test (real-time polymerase chain reaction).

Published in: J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2019 Jan 18.