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Lipidomic analysis reveals serum alteration of plasmalogens in patients infected with ZIKA virus

By Queiroz A,Dantas Pinto IF, Lima M, et al.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Since the large outbreaks in French Polynesia in 2013-2014 and in Brazil in 2015, ZIKV has been considered a new public health threat. Similar to other related flavivirus, ZIKV is associated with mild and self-limiting symptoms such as rash, pruritus, prostration, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, conjunctivitis, lower back pain and, when present, a short-term low grade fever. In addition, ZIKV has been implicated in neurological complications such as neonatal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Herein, serum lipidomic analysis was used to identify possible alterations in lipid metabolism triggered by ZIKV infection.

Published in: Front Microbiol. 2019;10:753

 

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Field diagnosis and genotyping of chikungunya virus using a dried reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and MinION sequencing

By Hayashida K, Orba Y, Sequeira PC, et al.

Detection and sequencing of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) genome was performed using a combination of a modified reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method and a MinION sequencer. We developed the protocol for drying all the reagents for the RT-LAMP in a single reaction tube. Using this system, the CHIKV genome was effectively amplified under isothermal conditions, and used as a template for MinION sequencing with a laptop computer. Our in-house RT-LAMP method and MinION sequencing system were also validated with RNAs and serum samples from recent outbreaks of CHIKV patients in Brazil. The obtained sequence data confirmed the CHIKV outbreaks and identified the genotype. In summary, our established inexpensive on-site genome detection and sequencing system is applicable for both diagnosis of CHIKV infected patients and genotyping of the CHIKV virus in future outbreak in remote areas.

Published in: PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(6):e0007480

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Minor groove binder modification of widely used TaqMan hydrolysis probe for detection of dengue virus reduces risk of false-negative real-time PCR results for serotype 4

By Gray ER, Heaney J, Ferns RB, Sequeira PC, Nastouli E, Garson JA

Dengue is a vector-transmitted viral infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, with over 50 million apparent cases and a fatality rate of 2.5 % of 0.5 million severe cases per annum in recent years. Four serotypes are currently co-circulating. Diagnosis of infection may be by polymerase chain reaction, serology or rapid antigen test for NS1. Both pan-serotype and serotype-specific genome detection assays have been described, however, achieving adequate sensitivity with pan-serotype assays has been challenging. Indeed, as we show here, inspection of components and cycling parameters of a pan-serotype RT-qPCR assay in use in laboratories worldwide revealed insufficient probe stability to accommodate potential nucleotide mismatches, resulting in false-negatives. A minor–groove binder (MGB)-modified version of the probe was designed and its performance compared with that of the original probe in 32 samples.

Published in: J Virol Methods. 2019;268:17-23

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Past and future spread of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

By Kraemer MUG, Reiner RC Jr, Brady OJ, et al. 

 

The global population at risk from mosquito-borne diseases—including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika—is expanding in concert with changes in the distribution of two key vectors: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The distribution of these species is largely driven by both human movement and the presence of suitable climate. Using statistical mapping techniques, we show that human movement patterns explain the spread of both species in Europe and the United States following their introduction. We find that the spread of Ae. aegypti is characterized by long distance importations, while Ae. albopictus has expanded more along the fringes of its distribution. We describe these processes and predict the future distributions of both species in response to accelerating urbanization, connectivity and climate change. Global surveillance and control efforts that aim to mitigate the spread of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses must consider the so far unabated spread of these mosquitos. Our maps and predictions offer an opportunity to strategically target surveillance and control programmes and thereby augment efforts to reduce arbovirus burden in human populations globally.

Published in: Nat Microbiol. 2019; 4(5):900.

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Immunoglobulin-like Domain of HsFcμR as a Capture Molecule for Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus- and Zika Virus-Specific IgM Antibodies

By Rackow A, Ehmen C, von Possel R, et al.

The cellular surface molecule HsTOSO/ FAIM3/HsFcR has been identified as an IgM-specific Fc receptor expressed on lymphocytes. Here, we show that its extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain (HsFcRIgl) specifically binds to IgM/antigen immune complexes (ICs) and exploit this property for the development of novel detection systems for IgM antibodies directed against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Zika virus (ZIKV).

Published in: Clin Chem. 2019; 65(3): 451-461.

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Late Identification of Chikungunya Virus in the Central Nervous System of a 2-Month-Old Infant: Persistence of Maternal-Neonatal Infection?

By Di Maio Ferreira FCPA, da Silva ASV, Bispo de Filippis AM, Brasil P.

We report here a probable case of vertical transmission of chikungunya infection with confirmed maternal viremia close to labor that led to severe infection in the newborn. The newborn progressed with cutaneous lesions and irritability 2 months after vertical transmission, when chikungunya virus was detected in the infant’s CSF by a molecular diagnostic test (real-time polymerase chain reaction).

Published in: J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2019 Jan 18.

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Islands as Hotspots for Emerging Mosquito-Borne Viruses: A One-Health Perspective

By Mavian C, Dulcey M, Munoz O, Salemi M, Vittor AY, Capua I.

Within the context of the One Health approach, this review highlights how the emergence of arboviruses in tropical islands is linked to the complex interplay between their unique ecological settings and to the recent changes in local and global sociodemographic patterns. The authors also advocate for greater coordination between stakeholders in developing novel prevention and mitigation approaches for an intractable problem.

Published in: Viruses. 2019; 11(1):11.

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Evidence for multiple sylvatic transmission cycles during the 2016-2017 yellow fever virus outbreak, Brazil

By Moreira-Soto A, Torres MC, Lima de Mendonça MC, et al.

Since December 2016, Brazil has experienced an unusually large outbreak of yellow fever (YF). Whether urban transmission may contribute to the extent of the outbreak is unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize YF virus (YFV) genomes and to identify spatial patterns to determine the distribution and origin of YF cases in Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, the most affected Brazilian states during the current YFV outbreak.

Published in: Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018;24(9):1019.e1-1019.e4

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Zika Virus Infection and Differential Diagnosis in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients

By Calvet GA, Brasil P, Siqueira AM, et al.

Zika virus (ZIKV) emergence in South America revealed the lack of knowledge regarding clinical manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. We described the clinical characteristics, laboratory manifestations, differential diagnosis, and outcome of ZIKV infection in a large, single-center cohort of HIV-infected patients.

Published in: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Oct 1;79(2):237-243.

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Seroprevalence of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Viruses in an Antenatal Population in the Greater Kingston Metropolitan Region of Jamaica

By Joshua Anzinger, University Of the West Indies, Kingston – Jamaica

The poster was presented at the 2nd International Conference on Zika Virus and Aedes Related Infections in Tallinn, Estonia on June 14th – 17th 2018.

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