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Chikungunya fever in Jamaican children: public health effects and clinical features.

By Christie CD, Melbourne-Chambers R, Ennevor J, Young-Peart S, Buchanan T, Scott-Brown P, McNeil-Beecher N, Fulford-Ramdial T, Richards-Dawson M, James-Powell T, Jackson ST. 

Chikungunya virus entered the Caribbean for the first time in 2013 and Jamaica experienced its maiden epidemic with Chikungunya Fever in 2014. We aimed to describe the public health effects and describe the clinical features in children and adolescents in Jamaica.

Published in: West Indian Medical Journal 2016;65(3);431-437. Epub, Oct, 2016; DOI:10.7727/wimj.2016.529.

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Acute Paralysis and Neuro-inflammation in Jamaican Children during Zika Virus and Dengue Epidemics of 2016

By R Melbourne-Chambers, CDC Christie, E Greenaway, R Bullock

Dengue, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are all transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and are currently circulating in Jamaica. Jamaica has been experiencing a ZIKV epidemic since February 2016. At the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Kingston, Jamaica, a cluster of five cases of paralysis attributed to neuro-inflammation was noted amongst adolescents admitted to the institution. Three were diagnosed with acute myelitis and one each with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS). In these patients, there were common presenting symptoms, characteristic findings of peripheral nerve involvement and a history of contact with persons with symptoms of possible ZIKV in the majority. In only one case was a viral association, Dengue infection, confirmed. This case series suggests a unique clinical pattern of neuro-inflammation in Jamaican adolescents occurring during the ZIKV epidemic and questions the role of the three circulating arboviruses in the pathogenesis.

Published in: West Indian Med J 2016; 65 (3): 425

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Neurological Syndromes in Children during the Zika virus and dengue fever outbreak in Jamaica

By Melbourne-Chambers R., Christie CD, Greenaway E., Bullock R.

Dengue, Chikungunya Fever (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are all transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and are currently circulating in Jamaica. Jamaica has been experiencing a ZIKV epidemic since February 2016. At the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Kingston, Jamaica, a cluster of five cases of paralysis attributed to neuro-inflammation was noted amongst adolescents admitted to the institution. Three were diagnosed with acute myelitis and one each with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and guillain barre syndrome (GBS). In these patients, there were common presenting symptoms, characteristic findings of peripheral nerve involvement and a history of contact with persons with symptoms of possible ZIKV in the majority. In only one case was a viral association, Dengue infection, confirmed. This case series suggests a unique clinical pattern of neuro-inflammation in Jamaican adolescents occurring during the ZIKV epidemic and questions the role of the three circulating arboviruses in the pathogenesis.

Published in: West Indian Medical Journal 2016;65(3):425-430. Epub, Oct 2016; DOI:10.772/wimj.2016.526

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Coinfection with Zika and Dengue-2 Viruses in a Traveler Returning from Haiti, 2016: Clinical Presentation and Genetic Analysis.

by Iovine NM, Lednicky J, Cherabuddi K, Crooke H, White SK, Loeb JC, Cella E, Ciccozzi M, Salemi M, Morris JG Jr.

This case study provides details on the clinical presentation and genetic analysis of a student diagnosed with Zika and Dengue-2 virus co-infection in the United States after travel to Haiti.

Published in:Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 64, Issue 1, 1 January 2017, Pages 72–75.

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Emergence of the Zika Virus Epidemic in Jamaica and the National Respons Emergence of the Zika Virus Epidemic in Jamaica and the National Response.

By Webster-Kerr K, Christie CDC, Grant A., Chin, D.; Burrowes, H.; Clarke, K.; Wellington, I.; Shaw, K.; De La Haye W. 

Jamaica, along with the Americas, experienced major epidemics of arboviral diseases transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in recent years. These include dengue fever in 2012, Chikungunya fever in 2014 and Zika virus infection (ZIKV) in 2016. We present the emergence of the ZIKV epidemic in Jamaica and outline the national response.

Published in: West Indian Medical Journal 2016;65(1):243-249. Epub, Sept; DOI:10.772/wimj.2016.488

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Prolonged Shedding of Zika Virus Associated with Congenital Infection

by Oliveira DB, Almeida FJ, Durigon EL, Mendes ÉA, Braconi CT, Marchetti I, Andreata-Santos R, Cunha MP, Alves RP, Pereira LR, Melo SR, Neto DF, Mesquita FS, Araujo DB, Favoretto SR, Sáfadi MA, Ferreira LC, Zanotto PM, Botosso VF, Berezin EN.

The presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in multiple studies, although little is known about ZIKV shedding in congenitally infected infants. We report a case of a newborn who had continued viremia with ZIKV for at least 67 days after birth.

Published in: N Engl J Med. 2016 Sep 22;375(12):1202-4. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1607583. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

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Unravelling the Zika virus epidemic through population-based research

By Christie CD, Giaquinto C. 

Zika virus epidemic now involves 72 countries, worldwide. Transmission is multimodal through mosquito bites and blood and body fluids. Zika virus causes Guillain Barre Syndrome syndrome and pregnancy complications including perinatal microcephaly. Diagnosis is complicated by subclinical infection in 80%, co-circulation with dengue and chikungunya fevers with similar presentations and cross-reactivity in serological tests. There is no cure, or preventive vaccine. Large population-based studies will help to elucidate ZIKV epidemiology, vertical transmission, risks to the fetus of maternal ZIKV infection and natural history of congenital and non-congenital ZIKV infection as provided by the activities in the “ZIKAction” research consortium in Latin America, Europe and the Caribbean, which was recently funded by the European Commission.

Published in: West Indian Medical Journal Sep, 2016;65(1):239-242; Epub, Oct, 2016, DOI:10.7727/wimj.2016.454.

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Zika Virus: What Have We Learned?

by Sáfadi MA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne, enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, which belongs to the genus Flavivirus, related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Two major lineages, African and Asian, have been identified through phylogenetic analyses.

Published in: Am J Perinatol. 2016 Sep;33(11):1029-31. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1586116. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

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Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

by Bocanegra C, Sulleiro E, Soriano-Arandes A, Pou D, Suy A, Llurba E, Rodo C, Espasa M, Campins M, Martin A, Rodrigo C, Vazquez A, De Ory F, Sanchez-Seco MP, Pumarola T, Carreras E, Molina I.

This case series of two pregnant women infected with the Zika virus in Barcelona, Spain and provides an algorithm for diagnosing pregnant women with suspected ZIKV infection in non-endemic areas.

Published in: Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Jul;22(7):648-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.03.025. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

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Data sharing: A code of conduct for data on epidemics.

by Capua I

This correspondence urges Brazil to speed up reforms to current biosecurity legislation, enabling sharing of vital Zika virus samples and information.

Published in: Nature. Vol 534. England2016:326.

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