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Human T cell responses to Dengue and Zika virus infection compared to Dengue/Zika coinfection

By Badolato-Corrêa J, Sánchez-Arcila JC, et al.

Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) co-circulated during latest outbreaks in Brazil, hence, it is important to evaluate the host cross-reactive immune responses to these viruses. So far, little is known about human T cell responses to ZIKV and no reports detail adaptive immune responses during DENV/ZIKV coinfection.

Published in: Immun Inflamm Dis. 2018 Jun; 6(2): 194–206.

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Meningo-encephalo-myelitis in Children during the Zika Virus Epidemic in Grenada

By Nelson B, Melbourne-Chambers R, Christie CDC

Zika Virus is neurotropic. We report two children from the Caribbean island of Grenada, a three-year-old with acute neuro-inflammation who had intractable seizures, meningo-encephalitis, CSF pleocytosis and Zika IgM positive acute serology and a four-year-old with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis manifesting as generalized seizures, optic neuritis, diffuse cerebral dysfunction, encephalopathy, impaired speech and ataxia who also had CSF pleocytosis as well as Zika IgM and dengue IgM positive acute serologies. Both cases occurred during the 2016 Zika and Dengue fever epidemic in Grenada. Both children recovered completely. The etiologic role of the Zika and Dengue arboviruses is discussed.

Published in: West Indian Med J. Published Online: December 20, 2017 (doi:10.7727/wimj.2017.227) 

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Consequences of perinatal infections with rubella, measles, and mumps

By Schwarz ER.

Measles, mumps, and rubella have recently taken the stage as re-emerging diseases of public health importance-particularly in regards to the consequences seen with perinatal infections. Effective vaccination strategies have successfully reduced the spread of measles, mumps, and rubella in the United States, but a current trend of increased vaccination hesitancy, fear of vaccine safety, and spread of misconceptions surrounding the science of vaccines have led to a relative resurgence of these diseases in the developed world. This article aims to explore why measles, mumps, and rubella should continue to be on the radar of medical professionals, and why the study of these diseases is important for understanding other teratogenic viruses of public health importance.

Published in: Curr Opin Virol. 2017;27:71-77

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Behavioral, climatic, and environmental risk factors for Zika and Chikungunya virus infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

By Fuller TL, Calvet G, Genaro Estevam C, et al. 

The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination.

Published in: PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0188002.

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Neurologic Complications Associated With the Zika Virus in Brazilian Adults

By da Silva IRF, Frontera JA, Bispo de Filippis AM, Nascimento OJMD

Importance:  There are no prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence and spectrum of neurologic manifestations secondary to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in adults.

Objective:  To evaluate the rates of acute ZIKV infection among patients hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), meningoencephalitis, or transverse myelitis.

Published in: JAMA Neurol. 2017 Oct 1;74(10):1190-1198.

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Rapid antigen tests for dengue virus serotypes and Zika virus in patient serum

By Bosch I, de Puig H, Hiley M, et al.

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak demonstrates that cost-effective clinical diagnostics are urgently needed to detect and distinguish viral infections to improve patient care. Unlike dengue virus (DENV), ZIKV infections during pregnancy correlate with severe birth defects, including microcephaly and neurological disorders. Because ZIKV and DENV are related flaviviruses, their homologous proteins and nucleic acids can cause cross-reactions and false-positive results in molecular, antigenic, and serologic diagnostics. We report the characterization of monoclonal antibody pairs that have been translated into rapid immunochromatography tests to specifically detect the viral nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein antigen and distinguish the four DENV serotypes (DENV1–4) and ZIKV without cross-reaction.

Published in: Sci Transl Med. 2017 Sep 27;9(409)

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Structural investigation of C6/36 and Vero cell cultures infected with a Brazilian Zika virus

By Barreto-Vieira DF, Jacome FC, da Silva MAN, et al.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the flavivirus genus, and its genome is approximately 10.8 kilobases of positive-strand RNA enclosed in a capsid and surrounded by a membrane. Studies on the replication dynamics of ZIKV are scarce, which limits the development of antiviral agents and vaccines directed against ZIKV. In this study, Aedes albopictus mosquito lineage cells (C6/36 cells) and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero cells) were inoculated with a ZIKV sample isolated from a Brazilian patient, and the infection was characterized by immunofluorescence staining, phase contrast light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and real-time RT-PCR. The infection was observed in both cell lineages, and ZIKV particles were observed inside lysosomes, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and viroplasm-like structures. The susceptibility of C6/36 and Vero cells to ZIKV infection was demonstrated. Moreover, this study showed that part of the replicative cycle may occur within viroplasm-like structures, which has not been previously demonstrated in other flaviviruses.

Published in: PLoS One2017;12(9):e0184397.

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Zika genomics urgently need standardized and curated reference sequences

By Theys K, Libin P, Dallmeier K, et al.

In this letter, the authors address the need for curation and standardized annotation of ZIKV reference genomes in order to guide researchers and clinicians in genomic analyses and the translation of research findings.

Published in: PLoS Pathog. 2017;13(9):e1006528

 

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Antibody-based assay discriminates Zika virus infection from other flaviviruses

By Balmaseda A, Stettler K, Medialdea-Carrera R, Collado D, Jin X, Zambrana JV, Jaconi S, Cameroni E, Saborio S, Rovida F, Percivalle E, Ijaz S, Dicks S, Ushiro-Lumb I, Barzon L, Siqueira PBrown DWG, Baldanti F, Tedder R, Zambon M, de Filippis AMB, Harris E, Corti D.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged recently as a global health threat, causing a pandemic in the Americas. ZIKV infection mostly causes mild disease, but is linked to devastating congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. The high level of cross-reactivity among flaviviruses and their cocirculation has complicated serological approaches to differentially detect ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV) infections, accentuating the urgent need for a specific and sensitive serological test.

Published in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017Aug 1;114(31):8384-8389.

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