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Publications

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Seroprevalence of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Viruses in an Antenatal Population in the Greater Kingston Metropolitan Region of Jamaica

By Joshua Anzinger, University Of the West Indies, Kingston – Jamaica

The poster was presented at the 2nd International Conference on Zika Virus and Aedes Related Infections in Tallinn, Estonia on June 14th – 17th 2018.

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Investigating vertical transmission of chikungunya, dengue and zika virus infection: a prospective observational cohort study of pregnant women and infants in Jamaica

By CD Christie, C Thorne, J Anzinger, H Bailey, et al.

Poster presented at the International Symposium on Zika Virus Research, held in Marseille – France, on June 4th – 6th 2018

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Symptomatic Zika Virus Infection in Infants, Children, and Adolescents Living in Puerto Rico

By Read JS, Torres-Velasquez B, Lorenzi O, et al.

This study represents the largest study to date of ZIKV infection in the pediatric population. Most children infected with ZIKV had fever, rash, and conjunctival hyperemia. The children usually presented for evaluation at fewer than 3 days after the onset of symptoms. Viral loads for ZIKV were higher in serum vs urine specimens. Median viral loads in serum specimens differed significantly according to the number of days after the onset of symptoms.

Published in: JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(7):686-693.

 

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What we know and what we don’t know about perinatal Zika virus infection: A systematic review

By Soriano-Arandes A, Rivero-Calle I, Nastouli E, et al.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused the most challenging worldwide infectious epidemic outbreak in recent months. ZIKV causes microcephaly and other congenital malformations. There is a need to perform updated systematic reviews on ZIKV infection periodically because this epidemic is bringing up new evidence with extraordinary speed.

 

Published in: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy Vol. 0, Iss. ja, 2018

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Evidence for Mother-to-Child Transmission of Zika Virus Through Breast Milk

By Gabriela M Blohm, John A Lednicky, Marilianna Márquez, Sarah K White, Julia C Loeb, Carlos A Pacheco, David J Nolan, Taylor Paisie, Marco Salemi, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales, J Glenn Morris, Juliet R C Pulliam, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi

Zikavirus (ZIKV) is an emerging viral pathogen that continues to spread throughout different regions of the world. Herein we report a case that provides further evidence that ZIKV transmission can occur through breastfeeding by providing a detailed clinical, genomic, and virological case-based description.

Published in: Clinical Infectious Diseases, cix968 https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix968 

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Meningo-encephalo-myelitis in Children during the Zika Virus Epidemic in Grenada

By Nelson B, Melbourne-Chambers R, Christie CDC

Zika Virus is neurotropic. We report two children from the Caribbean island of Grenada, a three-year-old with acute neuro-inflammation who had intractable seizures, meningo-encephalitis, CSF pleocytosis and Zika IgM positive acute serology and a four-year-old with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis manifesting as generalized seizures, optic neuritis, diffuse cerebral dysfunction, encephalopathy, impaired speech and ataxia who also had CSF pleocytosis as well as Zika IgM and dengue IgM positive acute serologies. Both cases occurred during the 2016 Zika and Dengue fever epidemic in Grenada. Both children recovered completely. The etiologic role of the Zika and Dengue arboviruses is discussed.

Published in: West Indian Med J. Published Online: December 20, 2017 (doi:10.7727/wimj.2017.227) 

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Consequences of perinatal infections with rubella, measles, and mumps

By Schwarz ER.

Measles, mumps, and rubella have recently taken the stage as re-emerging diseases of public health importance-particularly in regards to the consequences seen with perinatal infections. Effective vaccination strategies have successfully reduced the spread of measles, mumps, and rubella in the United States, but a current trend of increased vaccination hesitancy, fear of vaccine safety, and spread of misconceptions surrounding the science of vaccines have led to a relative resurgence of these diseases in the developed world. This article aims to explore why measles, mumps, and rubella should continue to be on the radar of medical professionals, and why the study of these diseases is important for understanding other teratogenic viruses of public health importance.

Published in: Curr Opin Virol. 2017;27:71-77

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Behavioral, climatic, and environmental risk factors for Zika and Chikungunya virus infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

By Fuller TL, Calvet G, Genaro Estevam C, et al. 

The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics. Further, we assessed the spatial pattern of arbovirus incidence at the municipal and neighborhood scales and the timing of epidemics and major rainfall events. Lab-confirmed cases included 1,717 infections with ZIKV (43.8%) and 2,170 with CHIKV (55.4%) and only 29 (<1%) with DENV. ZIKV incidence was greater in neighborhoods with little access to municipal water infrastructure (r = -0.47, p = 1.2×10-8). CHIKV incidence was weakly correlated with urbanization (r = 0.2, p = 0.02). Rains began in October 2015 and were followed one month later by the largest wave of ZIKV epidemic. ZIKV cases markedly declined in February 2016, which coincided with the start of a CHIKV outbreak. Rainfall predicted ZIKV and CHIKV with a lead time of 3 weeks each time. The association between rainfall and epidemics reflects vector ecology as the larval stages of Aedes aegypti require pools of water to develop. The temporal dynamics of ZIKV and CHIKV may be explained by the shorter incubation period of the viruses in the mosquito vector; 2 days for CHIKV versus 10 days for ZIKV.

Published in: PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0188002.

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Neurologic Complications Associated With the Zika Virus in Brazilian Adults

By da Silva IRF, Frontera JA, Bispo de Filippis AM, Nascimento OJMD

Importance:  There are no prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence and spectrum of neurologic manifestations secondary to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in adults.

Objective:  To evaluate the rates of acute ZIKV infection among patients hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), meningoencephalitis, or transverse myelitis.

Published in: JAMA Neurol. 2017;74(10):1190–1198. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.1703